History of Turkey Reveals Big Civilizations’ Formation in the City

Since the establishment of Turkey to until now, this place has played an integral role towards the proper development of organized society. This statement is justified by the fact that it has witnessed ruins and scatters of different cultures throughout its remarkable land. According to the History of Turkey, the place has bored remnants belonging to big civilizations across the world. These include Hittites, Phrygians, Urartians, Persians, Lycians, Macedonians, Lonians, Romans and lots more. Here, you will get a brief overview about the cultures and civilizations adopted by some of these aforementioned civilizations in Turkey.


Firstly, Hittites have established in Turkey via central authority of Anatolia, known as the Asian peninsula in the place. This civilization had founded feudal state, which constituted the individuals, who have to ability to challenge the hegemony of Egypt. Excavations have even uncovered various types of worth noticing ruins about the settlement of Hittite in Anatolia to fascinate a wide range of artifacts, which date from the present period over the display within the Museum named as Ankara Archaeological Museum. The whole empire has remained contemporary with the Troy over the western part of Anatolia.


After this, History of Turkey witnessed the arrival of power of Troy or Trojans civilizations during 1250 BC. These people have repelled consistent attacks from the invaders of Greece only to succumb towards the overall ingenuity of the horse made of wood, which became famous in the Homer’s Odyssey. In addition, large numbers of archeological excavations have highlighted about nine different settlement periods at this website, which include ruins caused in the city walls, temple and house fountains and in the theatre. Today also, travelers choosing to travel Turkey will found the symbolic wooden horse of Trojan at the site, which depicts or commemorates the historical and legendary war. Later on, Phrygians, Carians and Persians have even bought some of the interesting things and traditions related to their civilizations.


During the occupation of Roman people in Anatolia during the first century BC, the region has obtained its name as the Asia Minor. During this age, Turkish people have witnessed the introduced of new engineering methods and building technologies by Romanians into the already existing architecture of Anatolia. Even local citizens have observed the spread and popularity of Christian religion. During that time, marble has become an important material for construction and building purposes while the newly invented construction style with the help of bricks remained properly bound with the help of mortar and have used for the first time for construction of different functional structures.

Moreover, it is only because of the efforts of Romanians, people belonging to different parts of the world have come to know about central heating done via circulation of hot air remained under floors and with the help of various hollow bricks in walls. All these have drastically encouraged the formation of various thermal buildings and properties. Lastly, travelers give their valuable time to visit Turkey will get an excellent opportunity to view various forms of vaults, arches and domes and several other forms of architectural masterpieces designed by engineers, artisans and technicians of Roman civilization.

Food Practices in Turkey Give Great Taste to Food Lovers

Whenever you plan your visit to Turkey, you will get the opportunity in order to try out many best cuisines while passing on in various eateries, restaurants and food centers. In fact, there are various types of mouth-watering dishes prepared in a different way according to the people located in different Turkish regions. In addition, you will find these food items as exceptional irrespective of the place. In short where you tried for the same.

Simplicity and high quality of ingredients present in different Turkish Cuisines make one of the pleasant surprises for food lovers and guests. If you look over the reviews related to Food Practices in Turkey, you would likely come across wide range of delicious food items, which you never choose to miss in your life during your trip to the place.

Iskender Kebab

If you love to eat kebab, you should definitely try this popular Turkish kebab dish. Food lovers or tourists will find this food variant from a famous place named Bursa located in the Northwestern part of Turkey. People prefer to make this dish with the help of beef topped or thinly sliced lamb and by pouring boiling butter and tomato sauce on the sliced bread. After this, you have to enjoy this food by serving it with yogurt. Despite the dish remains on high demand in Northwestern part of Turkey, people may even enjoy in other regions and suburbs of the place.

Stuffed Eggplant

Many people located in different cities of Turkey and individuals visiting the region out of the world prefer to enjoy stuffed eggplant to give good taste to their mouth. This is a special dish of stuffed and fried eggplant prepared by a mixture of ground beef, olive oil, tomatoes, diced onion, garlic and green peppers. Just in your first bite only, flavors melt perfectly inside your mouth. Turkish citizens mainly serve this dish with yogurt and rice present on the side.


If you look over the reviews related to Culture and Food Practices in Turkey, you will likely come to know an interesting fact about the Turkish tradition. According to which none of the Turkish woman is allowed to marry until and unless she developed her mastery or expertise in the art of preparing Borek. This cuisine contains Yufka, which refers to a paper-thin pastry, stacked or rolled in the form of varying layers by the help of different fillings, which include meat, spinach, potatoes and cheese and so on. Borek food items are crisp, light and perfect to enjoy during breakfast and with coffee or tea.


Meatballs or Kofte are available to people in varying sizes and shapes depending on the way, in which they are cooked and prepared in varying cities and suburbs of Turkey. However, the basic method remains same, which involves the use of ground meat, varying spices and onions, all of which then boiled or baked and fried in the proper way. Food lovers can enjoy these delicious balls with sliced potatoes, tomatoes and green peppers. Enjoy your holiday in Turkey today.

Turkey – A Great Combination of Culture and Technology

The name Turkey is derived from the Medieval Latin term ‘Truchia,’ which means ‘Land of the Turks’; it also includes the areas that were known as Anatolia and Eastern Thrace. Anatolia means Asia Minor in Latin.

When the Greeks came to power after defeating the Persians, a region was taken away from the Hittites, and new states of Phrygia and Lydia were formed out of it on the western coast, this region was Turkey.

Alexander the Great was able to defeat the mighty Persians, and briefly, the Greek Empire spread from Eastern Europe to India, but was short-lived after his death, and was broken up into pieces. A large part of Anatolia came under the empire of Selucus Nicator, one of the governors of Alexander, who controlled the Asia Minor region.

Early Turkish Empire – The Ottoman

In the 4th century AD, during the rule of Constantine the Great, the eastern part of Roman Empire, later this also known as the Byzantine Empire was established with Constantinople as its capital. After separation from the western region, the Byzantine Empire flourished for many years. The Oghuz Turks migrated into Anatolia forming the Seljuk Empire in the 11 century AD. The Seljuk defeated the Byzantine Empire in 1071, at Manzikert. They continued in power till the Mongols invaded at Kosedaq.

The Mongol occupation gave birth to a number of small Turkish states; one such state was the Ottoman Beylik, this controlled western Anatolia and took over Rumelia, and finally after conquering Istanbul, the Ottoman became a large empire in Europe, called the Turkish Empire. This empire subsequently captured eastern Anatolia, Caucasus, Middle East, Central Europe and North Africa.

Role of Turkey in World War 1:

The Ottoman Empire, supported Germany and Italy; the Central Powers, in order to form the Triple Alliance in August 1914, and it formally entered the WW1 on 28th October 1914 by bombing the  Russian Black Sea Ports. The Allied Powers comprising of England, USA and Russia, declared war on Turkey on the 4th of November 1914.

Enver Pasha was a visionary minister in Turkey during those times; he understood the military might of Germany and knew he could open a corridor from Turkey, through Asia Minor, right up to India. Germany, on the other hand, did not want Turkey to join the Allies, and through Turkey, it wished to garner support for itself from Romania and Bulgaria.

The Germans wanted to keep UK and USA out of Europe, knowing that their interest lay in the extensive Hydrocarbon reserves of Europe, Arabia and Africa.

Turkey was defeated badly in World War 1 and Anatolia, and East Thrace was run over by the Allied forces. A young leader Mustafa Kemal fought off the Allied Powers and liberated Anatolia and East Thrace, and the Republic of Turkey was born in 1923 with Ankara as its capital.

Westernization of Turkey:

Mustafa Kemal or Ataturk was a true reformist and a man of great vision; he realized that Turkey was at the ‘confluence’ of modern European ideology at one side and the fundamental Islamite thought process of Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia, at the other side. He went ahead and prescribed the western lifestyle for his people, which opened doors to education, technology and equality between men and women. He discontinued religious or other titles, closed down Islamic courts, replaced the Islamic canon law by secular civil code of the Swiss and modeled the Penal Code after the Italian Penal Code. He also replaced the Ottoman Turkish alphabet with the New Turkish alphabet, which was based on the Latin alphabet system. Ataturk banned the Fez hat in 1925 as part of his modernizing reforms. To give his nation a modern outlook, he allowed women to stop wearing the veil and gave them full political rights. All citizens took surnames, and the Islamic calendar gave way to the Western calendar. Surely Kemal Ataturk was a man well ahead of his times; who fore-saw what would be best for the generations to come, very few leaders have his fore-sight and statesmanship.

The Art And Melting Pot Of Cultures Culture In Turkey

The Turkish Empire evolved under the influence of the Armenian, Greek, Persian and the Arabic cultures, and, therefore, their arts, music and architecture has a great similarity to those found in these nations. The Ottoman Empire also adopted and absorbed cultures of the lands that they conquered; there is a strong influence of the Islamic society, its language and customs on Turkish art.

The Arabic and Persian culture seems to dominate the Turkish culture, but the Balkans, Jews, Armenians and Assyrians, who mixed freely with them and practiced their own cultures, further enriched this cauldron of cultures.

The Ottoman Architecture: 

The earliest evidence of the Turkish architecture can be found in Bursa and Edirne, in the 14th and 15th centuries. It developed from the earlier Seljuk architecture, and was heavily influenced by the Byzantine architecture, the Iranian and the Islamic ‘Mamluk’ culture, after Constantinople was won over by the Ottomans. For over 400 years architecture like the Byzantine Church of Hagia Sofia stood as a model for Mosques and other artifacts of the Turkish regime. Over time, the Turkish architecture synthesized with the Mediterranean and the Middle Eastern cultures.

The Turkish people by now had perfected the art of building massive domes, and vast inner spaces and one can see the equilibrium between the inner and the outer spaces, articulated lighting, and shadow play.

The Islamic religious architecture shows simple buildings covered with complex, intrinsic and extensive decorations; this was adapted into a more dynamic depiction of art, by the Turkish and it was evident in their vaults, domes and columns, etc.

The mosque architecture which bore the Arabic influences was transformed from being closely packed spaces to open, aesthetic and well balanced buildings, with elegance and beauty which emulated a heavenly serenity.

The Turkish Music:

Turkish classical music was developed in Istanbul and other major Ottoman cities. It was mostly religious music, developed in the palaces, Sufi lodges and the mosques of the empire. A solo singer performs the traditional music of turkey with a small instrumental band accompanying him. The music instruments were the ‘tambour’ or lute, the flute, fiddle, the ‘keman’ a violin like instrument, and the ‘kudum’ or drum.

The music is based on a system of scales called ‘makams,’ there are over 600 makams, out of which 119 makams are defined, but nowadays only 20 makams are used. In the Sufi style, each makam represents a spiritual or psychological state of mind. Certain makams, instrumentals or music pieces were used to cure certain medical conditions.


A ‘Hamparsum’ is a notation used to transcribe classical music, and has gradually found its way in the western music. Turkish classical music is taught in Istanbul’s Uskudar Musiki Cemiyeti. There are different forms of the classical Turkish music; the ‘Fasil,’ the ‘Pesrey,’ the ‘Saz Semaisi,’ ‘Taksim’, and the light classical song called ‘Sarki.’

The Art and Culture of Turkey is Timeless:

Turkey is a melting pot of cultures, arts and ideologies, and has evolved over the generations into a vibrant society, thanks to the visionary leadership and administration of Mustafa Kemal ‘Ataturk,’ who introduced bold reforms in an otherwise traditional society. Turkey is now poised at the confluence of technology and culture and stands before the world as a modern nation.

The Well Balanced Lifestyles In Turkey

Turkey is one of the most multi-cultural societies in the world today; with traditions like the Armenian, the Persian and the Greek, bringing in a lasting influence on the cuisine of the Turkish people. It can be considered as a fusion of Central Asian, Caucasian, Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines.

The food of people in Istanbul today is a culinary heritage passed down to them from the Ottoman Court cuisine. It stands apart; with its light use of spices, affinity to rice compared to Bulgur Koftes, full acceptance and consumption of vegetable stew (Turlu), widespread popularity of a delicacy made out of eggplant stuffed with Dolmas, and an insatiable demand of the fish Hamsi from the Black Sea region. It has also incorporated ‘yogurt’ from Central Asia, maize dishes from Slavic cuisine, and kebabs, mazes and dough-based desserts like baklava, kadayif and kanafeh, from the Southern regions.

In the western part of Turkey, Olive trees are abundantly grown. So Olive oil is the majorly used cooking oil. The influence from the Aegean, Mediterranean and Marmara regions have been the use of food rich in vegetables, herbs and fish. The Central Anatolian cuisine has many famous food specialties like the Keskek, Manti and The Gozleme.

A Turkish ‘Culinary’ Day:

The Turkish people usually like a very simple breakfast, with cheese or ‘Beyaz Peynir,’ butter, eggs, olives, cucumbers, tomatoes, honey, jam and ‘Kaymak Sujuk’ a spicy Turkish sausage.

Another Turkish breakfast specialty is the ‘menemen,’ cooked with tomatoes, onions, olive oil, eggs and green peppers. Turkish tea is served at breakfast without fail.

One more practice that is prevalent in Turkey is the consumption of water and stale bread for breakfast, a reminder of the survival during the times of famines, it was adopted into the Turkish culture and the dish is called the ‘Iratchu.’

A fresh ‘boar’s tongue’ is a breakfast delicacy; it is well cooked and served thinly sliced.

Turkish coffee is served with sugar and milk, it’s nice and strong and quite tasty, but the bottom is filled with thick bitter residue that has to be cleverly avoided.

Lunch in Turkey, is an appropriated multi-course affair, with rice, breads, curries, vegetables, meat products and soups. The ‘Iskender Kebab’ is a high calorie dish with pieces of soggy bread with shreds of lamb meat on top, which is dipped in tomato sauce, butter and yogurt and garnished with hot peppers. Food is typically prepared at home; a typical meal begins with a soup, followed by vegetables; boiled with minced meat, to be eaten with rice or bulgur, and accompanied by a salad of cucumber in yogurt, called the ‘cacik.’

Food items like ‘Kofte,’ ‘Kokorec,’ ‘Borek’ and ‘Doner’ are served as fast food, to the younger Turkish generations.


A Well Balanced Lifestyle:

The Turkish people are a hardworking people and descendants of warrior nations; therefore, the consumption of Carbohydrates and Proteins in their diet is high, their affinity for lamb meat, beef, chicken, eggplant, onions, garlic, lentil, beans and tomatoes, is evident in their daily cuisine.

They are endowed with rich flora and abundant fruits like plums, apricots, pears, grapes, pomegranates and figs, which are consumed alongside meals and on special occasions.

Their fat consumption is fairly low with butter, margarine, olive or sunflower oil used in their cuisine sparingly.

A famous Turkish drink Ayaran, is made mixing yogurt and water, and consumed with heavy meals.

The Turkish food practice and cuisine is thus one of the world’s most healthy and complete food, evolved over the generations and influenced by innumerable cultures, giving a rich ‘aroma’ to the Turkish lifestyle.